biosecurity on farm fields
Biosecurity is a concept that is integral to the success of the poultry production systems, especially laying hens in reducing the risk and consequences of the influx of infectious diseases of poultry and humans (Payne 2000). Biosecurity is a management practice to reduce the potential for transmission of organisms such as the development of AI virus in attacking animals and humans. Biosecurity comprises two essential elements of bio-kontaimen and bio-exclusion. Bio-kontaimen is the prevention of virus-infected and bio coming of exclusion is to keep viruses that have not come out or spread (WHO 2008b).
Other sense, biosecurity is a system for preventing both clinical and subclinical disease, including diseases zoonosa, which is a system for optimizing the overall production of poultry and parts of animal welfare. According Shulaw and Bowman (2001), biosecurity is all management practices are applied to prevent the organism causing zoonotic disease of chickens and livestock in and out.
The main purpose of the application of biosecurity are:
- minimize the presence of disease-causing
- minimize the opportunities associated with the landlady agent
- create a level of environmental contamination by disease agents to a minimum (Zainuddin and Wibawan, 2007).
According to Director General of Animal Husbandry (2005) goal of biosecurity is to prevent all possibility of transmission by infected livestock and spread disease. The application of biosecurity on farms throughout the sector, both in poultry or other livestock will reduce the risk of spread of microorganisms that cause diseases that threaten the sector. Although biosecurity is not one – the only prevention against the disease, but biosecurity is the first line of defense against disease (Cardona, 2005). Biosecurity is very important to control and prevent various diseases that kill. Biosecurity can be described as a set of programs and procedures that will prevent or limit the life and menyebarkanhamadan harmful microorganisms in various places such as farm animal shelter and slaughterhouses.
Biosecurity programs include controlling the movement of animals, equipment, people – men and means of transport from the outside and into a single farm to another farm. Separation of poultry, wild birds, rodents and animals that are geographically isolated to minimize the spread of disease. Vaccination to boost the immune system. Inspection procedures to reduce infections / inflammation harmful microorganisms and treatment to prevent or treatment of bacterial or protozoan diseases. Control insects that can cause disease. Implementation of disinfection and hygienic procedures to reduce infection rates and treatment to eradicate harmful microorganisms to prevent and treat bacterial and protozoan diseases (danJackson Grimes, 2001).
RI Department (2008) adds that the application of biosecurity on farms can be done by:
– Location of farm fenced with one entrance
– Dwelling house, poultry cages and other animal cages arranged at separate locations
– Strict limitations on out of the material (animal / poultry, poultry products, feed, poultry manure, stable mat, litter, egg crates) which can carry disease agents
– Restrictions are strictly out of people / guests / workers and vehicles to or from the location of farms
– Everyone who enter or exit the farm should wash hands with soap or disinfectant
– Prevent the entry and exit rats (rodents), insects or other birds such as wild birds can act as vectors of disease to the farm location
– Poultry are separated by species
– Cages, where food / drink, the rest of the base enclosure / cage litter and debris is cleaned regularly secar
– Do not bring sick or dead poultry birds out of areas of livestock
– Dead birds should be burned or buried
– Poultry manure treated before it is out of the area farms
– The rest of the laundering of dirty water flowed directly out of the cage separately through the sewer to the shelter of waste (septic tanks) so that no stagnant around the cage or enclosure entrance.
According to Jeffrey (1997), the application of biosecurity on farms layer is divided into three main sections, namely (1) isolation, (2) traffic control, and (3) sanitation.
Isolation implies the placement or maintenance of animals in a controlled environment. Pengandangan cage or enclosure will preserve and protect birds and other animals to keep the entry into the cage. Insulation is applied also to separate the chickens by age group. Furthermore, the application management on large farms all-in/all-out depopulation continuous practice, and facilitate the implementation of cleaning and disinfecting all cages and equipment to break the cycle of disease (Jeffrey 1997).
Traffic control is applied to traffic to the farm and the traffic on the ranch. Traffic control is applied to humans, equipment, goods, and materials. These data include the provision of control pond dipping and spraying facilities at the entrance to the vehicle, spraying disinfectant on the equipment and enclosure, drivers, vendors, and other officers to replace the clothes with a special outfit. Health examination of animals that come and the Animal Health Certificate (SKKH). (Jeffrey 1997).
Sanitation practices include disinfection of materials, people and equipment into the ranch, as well as personnel hygiene on the farm (Jeffrey 1997). Sanitation includes cleaning and disinfection on a regular basis to materials – materials and equipment coming into the farm. Definition of disinfection is the effort made to relieve the carrier of the microorganisms are physically or chemically, among others, such as cleaning disinfectant, alcohol, NaOH, and others (Anonymous, 2000).
Sanitation includes cleaning livestock waste, feces and water used. Water used for consumption and other needs must meet the requirements of clean water (MOH, 2001). If the use of ground water or from other sources, then the water must be treated in such a way that meets the requirements of clean water.
One water treatment is commonly done is to add chlorine 2 ppm. To ensure that the water meets the requirements of clean water, it is necessary laboratory examinations regularly, minimum once a year. Chlorine is useful to turn off the microorganisms contained in water sources. Water is the cleaning media during an bahanbakupada sanitation and food processing (MOH, 2001). Water can also be a source of contaminants. If polluted water, is necessary to find other alternative sources of water or water must be treated by chemical methods or other methods. Another source of air pollutants in the vicinity (Marriott, 1999).
Food can be contaminated by microorganisms in the air during the process, packaging, storage and preparation. An effective way to reduce air pollution from microorganisms such as hygiene practices, filtering incoming air into the process space, and application of methods of good packaging (Marriott, 1999).
The intensity of trash collection and sewage farms (chicken manure) is done in a certain period regularly, it can invite flies or other insects as well as piles of garbage can be a source of pollution at the farm (Jeffrey, 1997).
According to Gernat (2004), disinfection is very important to maintain biosecurity in farms. Disinfection in livestock facilities supported the existence of a disinfectant, such as pond dipping and spraying. Pond dipping is used to soak the boots or wheels of vehicles that will go into the ranch. Spot spraying is used to disinfect the body of the person who will fit into the farm.
All equipment that comes from outside the farm should be isolated first in a closed room perfect for two days. In this room, these objects are fumigated. After fumigation, then tested for contaminants by an expert staff (EF, 2003).
The use of disinfectants should pay attention to the content of the disinfectant so that no one use disinfectants and disinfectant in accordance with the terms of good, that is safe, effective and efficient (Smith, 2001). Classification of disinfectants and disinfectant are often used in laying farms can be seen in Table 1.
Sources: Smith, 2001
Biosecurity Resources Chicken
Live chicken that will go into the farm could potentially carry disease agents. Therefore, there are several things that must be considered against the source of chicken will go into the farm areas, namely: 1) Chicken which comes from livestock or livestock disease-free seed. Chickens are allowed to enter the cage area is that has been examined by a veterinarian and the results must be negative from the presence of pathogens in poultry is agenagen (Shulaw and Bowman 2001), 2) Chicken which came to be accompanied by a Certificate of Animal Health (SKKH) issued by the Office in charge of Animal Health and signed by a vet related (Anonymous 1977), 3) Chicken that will go into the farm area was isolated first in a room completely covered so that no agents or diseases that can come out into the isolation area (Shulaw and Bowman 2001).
Animal Biosecurity to Penggangu
Some of the animals as a potential animal penganggu is poultry / wild birds, rodents, and insects (Hanson 2002). It should be noted by the owner or farm workers (EF 2003), namely: 1) It is not allowed to have / take care of other birds, pigs, and all animals that could pose a risk of illness or danger to the chickens (rats and wild birds are the vector potential) , 2) Conducting special precautions after contact with other animals before
entry or contact with poultry. On the application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in the chicken farm, one of the critical control points (critical control points / CCP) is a daily monitoring of wild birds and rodents in the surrounding area of the chicken coop. In the bio-security programs and procedures to separate these birds against other avian species, the species is not poultry, including wild birds, rodents and other animals (Grimes 2001). According Kuney (1999), the feed can be a source of the nation’s coming of rodents and wild birds. Therefore, rodents and wild birds prevented from reaching the feed.
Basically, not all of the aforementioned dangerous because it also depends on the species of animals, the disease brought, and resistance to disease poultry brought these wild animals. However, because of the impossibility of every animal that goes examined one by one, is better prevented as early as possible so that the animals do not enter the region
livestock (Soeroso, personal communication, July 14, 2007). So, as much as possible to minimize exposure to harmful microorganisms on chicken (Kuney 1999).
Peti biosecurity Eggs
The crate of eggs originating from outside the farm is not allowed into the farm area. It aims to prevent the agents from contaminating pathogens or hazardous areas within the farm. Former egg crates made of wood can carry microbes from other farms so that they can infect chickens in farms. Wood is very hard to be disinfected and should not be used for equipment in agriculture, including the egg crate (Marriott 1999).
Biosecurity Guests and Livestock Workers
The application of biosecurity in the supervision of human traffic (EF 2003) include: 1) the employee or person engaged in the business of poultry breeding farms are not allowed to keep birds or chickens at his home. Similarly, for commercial farms, 2) People who will go onto the farm, not previously visited the farm on the level below it (commercial farms, processing and others) whose status is unknown higienenya, minimum two days after the visit, 3) guests should not visit the farm seeds elders (grand parent), unless a professional (expert) associated with seed farm elders (grand parent) tersebut.Aspek sanitation is closely related to the implementation of hygiene. That must be considered is to keep, lest any contaminants that still attaches to the body so it can infect chickens in cages. It can be applied by hand washing, changing clothes dirty, do the dipping and spraying boots all limbs (Stanton, 2004).
People who enter the location of livestock farms are required to follow sanitation requirements, namely the disinfection by spray, shower, change clothes, and special footwear. This applies also to sanitation for the goods (disinfection with a liquid disinfectant).
Biosecurity Chicken Illness / Death
Chickens are sick / dead can be a source of diseases harmful to adjacent healthy chickens. Therefore, the chickens are sick / dead must be immediately removed and separated from the chicken coop as far as possible so as not to infect healthy healthy chickens. Chickens are sick / dead immediately isolated and diagnosed in a laboratory by your veterinarian immediately known breeding for disease. After that, the chicken should be immediately burned in the crematorium (Hanson 2002).
Livestock Hygiene Eggs
Hygiene is all the effort associated with health problems and efforts to maintain or to improve health. It is stipulated in the Government of the Republic of Indonesia Number 28 Year 2004 on Safety, Quality and Nutrition Food (Anonymous 2004). Understanding of food hygiene are all conditions and measures to ensure the safety and feasibility of food at all stages in the food chain (CAC 1997). Food safety (food safety) is a guarantee that food is not harmful to the consumer at the time prepared and / or eaten according to its needs (CAC 1997). Meanwhile, according to the government, food security conditions and efforts are needed to prevent food from possible contamination of biological, chemical and other objects that may interfere with, harm and endanger human health (Anonymous 1996). Eligibility for Food (food suitability) is to guarantee that food is acceptable for human consumption according to his needs (CAC 1997). In a farm, good hygiene practices shall be applied to the handling of eggs, because eggs including agenagen food that could potentially carry pathogens (eg Salmonella enteritidis ) and including perishable food (PCFS 1999).
Buildings built in an area of farms should use materials that are easily cleaned and disinfected, and resistant to mold growth (Marriott 1999). Likewise for the design of buildings in a farm, should consider the usefulness of the building (Hanson 2002). Warehouse feed should pay attention to temperature and humidity, as well as good air flow, thus avoiding the growth of mold. If for barn eggs, note the humidity is not more than 80% with a temperature of 12-15 ° C (Sudaryani 1996).
Facilities that are well planned with a layout (layout) is essential for the smooth operation of the business units of food. Layout, design, and facilities directly affect (1) safety and worker productivity, (2) labor and energy costs, (3) customer satisfaction. The better the facilities the business units are planned, the easier the achievement of food security and profitability (McSwane et al. 2000). Facilities in the area of farms must support the implementation of hygiene at the farm.
Enclosure should be planted with grass area with good quality. This grass is useful to reduce heat by reflecting heat that can arise when the air is very hot in the cage area. Other uses are to prevent soil erosion in the immediate area that can cause damage to home / building (Berry 2003). Trees should not be too much in the area of the cage because it can interfere with air circulation area of the cage. To power the facility, set to the light intensity is quite stable and barn in the area of feed / egg (Berry 2003).
Each worker or person in the food business unit is responsible keeping everything clean and sanitary. Cleaning equipment that effectively reduces the chance of contamination during preparation, storage, and presentation. Cleaning means the removal of dirt invisible to the eye (visible) from the surface of the equipment and materials. Sanitary means healthy or hygienic. This includes a reduced number of pathogenic microorganisms on surfaces of equipment and material to safe levels for health. Something that does not have sanitary risk to human health (McSwane et al. 2000). The equipment contained in the farm area is recommended to use a material that is easy to be cleaned and disinfected. Avoid equipment by using wood materials because these materials are difficult to be disinfected. The recommended material is the use of plastic or stainless steel because this material is both easy to clean and does not quickly broken (Marriott 1999).
According to Marriott (1999), said hygiene is used to describe the application of the principles of hygiene for the protection of human health. Personal hygiene refers to the cleanliness of the individual body. Humans are a potential source of microorganisms that can cause disease in humans. Employees can move the microorganisms that can cause disease. In fact, humans are the main source of food contamination. Hands, breath, hair, and sweat can contaminate food. The transfer of human and animal faecal microorganisms through the employee is a potential source of pathogenic microorganisms that can enter the food chain. Employees who are sick are not allowed contact with food, equipment, and facilities.
Human diseases can be transmitted through food is a respiratory disease such as fever, sore throat, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis; indigestion; dysentery; typhoid fever; and infectious hepatitis. In some diseases, disease-causing microorganisms can still survive / stay in patients after recovery. People with this condition is called carrier. Employees who are ill as a potential pollutant sources. Staphylococcus usually found around the boils, pimples, karbunkel, infected wounds, as well as the eyes and ears. Infections of the sinuses, sore throat, persistent cough, fever and symptoms of the disease and is the picture that microorganisms increase. The principle should be applied to the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea. Even after recovery, microorganisms can still be in the body that is a source of pollution, for example, salmonellae can survive a few months after the patient recovered. Hepatitis viruses can still be found in the digestive tract until more darilima years after symptoms of the disease. Below are discussed some parts of human body which is the source of contamination of microorganisms.
Hygienic Handling of Eggs
According to the PCFS (1999), preferably while gathering eggs in the cage, the eggs are intact and are collected by using a plastic egg tray (egg tray) separated with an egg being cracked / dirty. This is done to prevent a good egg that may be contaminated with pathogenic agents present in the egg dirty / cracked. The treatment can be applied to eggs that is by way of wiping dirty, without washing it first. On the storage of eggs, the eggs are stored in the egg tray is made of plastic that has been cleaned and disinfected, or if none, the eggs can be laid in a wooden crate with the husks that have been newly disinfected, separated by an egg being cracked / broken. Eggs are cracked should be used immediately. Egg tray is placed on plastic pallets minimum height of 15 cm from the floor and is a minimum of 15 cm from the wall. According McSwane et al. (2000) food storage in dry storage area on a flat surface within a minimum 6-inch (15:24 cm) from the floor and walls. It aims to facilitate cleaning of floors and walls, preventing seranganhama, and provide good air circulation to the product.
Livestock Sanitation Layer
Sanitation sanitation comes from the Latin word which means healthy. Sanitation is a prevention against possible proliferation of spoilage microbes and pathogens in food, beverage, equipment, and buildings that may damage the food of animal origin and endanger human health (Marriott 1999). Sanitation is closely related to disinfection. Sanitation is applied to poultry farms including disinfection practice material, human, and equipment that goes into farming, as well as personnel hygiene on the farm (Jeffrey 1997).
Definition of disinfection is the effort made to relieve the carrier of the microorganisms are physically or chemically, among others, such as providing disinfectant, alcohol, NaOH, and others (Anonymous 2000). Sanitation includes cleaning livestock waste, feces, and water used. Water used for consumption and other needs must meet the requirements of clean water (MOH 2001). If the use of ground water or from other sources, then the water must be treated in such a way that meets the requirements of clean water.
One water treatment is commonly done is to add chlorine 2 ppm. To ensure that the water meets the requirements of clean water, it is necessary laboratory examinations regularly, minimum once a year. Chlorine is useful to turn off the microorganisms contained in water sources. Water is the medium during the process of cleaning and sanitation is bahanbakupada food processing (MOH 2001). Water can also be a source of contaminants. If polluted water, is necessary to find other alternative sources of water or water must be treated by chemical methods or other methods. Another source of air pollutants in the vicinity (Marriott 1999).
Food can be contaminated by microorganisms in the air during the process, packaging, storage and preparation. An effective way to reduce air pollution from microorganisms such as hygiene practices, filtering incoming air into the process space, and application of methods of good packaging (Marriott 1999). The intensity of trash collection and sewage farms (chicken manure) is done in a certain period regularly, it can invite flies or other insects as well as piles of garbage can be a source of pollution at the farm (Jeffrey 1997).
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