palm kernel cake in poultry rations
Poultry rations (laying hens and broilers) commercially in Indonesia is currently using soybean meal as the main source of protein, although we do not produce soybean meal (SBM). That is why the number of imported soybean continue to increase which, according to the Directorate General of Animal Husbandry and Animal Health, by 2010 had reached 2.8 million tons. Therefore, it is very interesting if any feed ingredients that can replace soybean meal, especially when the material and its use of technology can be obtained in the country. There have been many studies reported in the country and abroad that aim to find a replacement soybean meal as a protein source in poultry rations. One of them is replacing the SBM with palm kernel cake (PKC).
Palm kernel cake is the by-products produced from palm kernel core extortion process to produce palm kernel oil. As the nation’s largest oil producer in the world, we must produce this material. According to data from the Center for Oil Palm Research (Ancient and Panjaitan, 2011), in 2010 Indonesia produced palm kernel cake as much as 2.881 million tons and in 2011 is expected to increase to 3.108 million tonnes.
Any person who wants to use a feed ingredient in the ration must first know the nutritional value of these materials. If the nutritional value of SBM and PKC were compared as in Table 1, it will be seen that the nutritional value of palm kernel expeller soybean meal well below the PKC and are not likely to replace SBM, if replacement techniques conducted in barter (or 1:1). Based on information from several feed mills in Indonesia, the use of PKC in the ration is only about 2.5% to 5%, due to limiting factors such as high crude fiber content, the existence of shell contamination that could affect livestock productivity, low nutrient digestibility and relative prices high compared to SBM.
However, the technology to reduce levels of shell, enrich the nutrient content and improve nutrient digestibility PKC has produced several researchers. This technology has been presented in writing Sinurat (2010). One example to improve the nutritional content of PKC is a simple technology using microorganisms breed PKC media or by the fermentation process. For example, the fermentation process is carried out in the Livestock Research Center PKC may increase crude protein from 14.2% to 22.95%, increase the content of amino acids and metabolic energy value as shown in Table 1 (Sinurat, 2010). Technology like this is expected to open opportunities to replace SBM with PKC.
Table 1. Comparison of Nutrient Content of Soybean Oil-cake and palm kernel cake.
* Sinurat (2010)
Replacement SBM With PKC in laying hens rations
One interesting article was reported by Dairo and Fasuyi in the Journal of Central European Agriculture Vol 9 (2008) No. 1, which sought to replace SBM with PKC that has been fermented. In this case, using the technique PKC fermented silage (without adding certain microorganisms during the fermentation process). This technique is reported to increase the crude protein PKC from 20.0% to 23.4% and lower crude fiber from 15.5% to 12.4%.
In that study, SBM replaced by PKC is a stratified (0, 25, 50 and 75%). From the results presented in Table 2 shows that the higher the portion of the replacement of SBM with PKC leads to increased feed consumption and egg production decreased slightly. Replacement SBN with PKC as much as 75% has led to a decrease in egg production and efficiency (FCR) are more extravagant. However, if viewed on a 50% replacement of SBM with PKC, egg production and feed utilization efficiency (FCR) is achieved, can still be tolerated or not significantly different from controls (without replacement SBM with PKC). Researchers concluded that the SBM can be replaced up to 50% with PKC that has been fermented for laying hens rations.