potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a natural antibiotic for livestock
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) included in the retrieval-finding rate (Zingiberaceae), a family with other findings such as the one between meeting buffoonery(Cucuma xanthorrizha), black Intersection (Curcuma aeruginosa), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), kencur (Kaempferia galanga), and ginger (galanga Languas). The name of ginger include ginger (Aceh), beeuing (Gayo), bahing (Batak Karo), sipodeh (Minangkabau), jahi (Lampung), ginger (Sunda), Jae (Java and Bali), jhai (Madura), Melito ( Gorontalo), geraka (Ternate) (Warintek, 2011).
2000 m asl with 2000 mm of rainfall per year, in loose soil, fertile and quite a lot of sunlight. Terna trunked false, height 30 cm to 1 m, the roots when cut yellow or orange. Leaves narrow, length 15-23 mm, width 8-15 mm; hairy petiole, length 2-4 mm; form of aloe leaf lengthwise, length 7.5 to 10 mm, and not hairy; sheath slightly hairy (Warintek, 2011) .
Ginger rhizome contains a volatile oil consisting of sesquiterpene compounds, zingiberen, zingeron, oleoresin, kamfena, limonene, borneol, sineol, sitral, zingiberal, felandren. In addition, there are also starch, resins, organic acids such as malic acid and oxalic acid, Vitamin A, B, and C, as well as compounds flavonoids and polyphenols. In pharmacology, ginger has many benefits such as a carminative (laxative fart), anti vomiting, seizures reliever, anti hardening of blood vessels, sweat laxative, anti-inflammatory, anti microbial and parasitic, anti piretik, anti-arthritic, and stimulate spending and gastric lymph bile node (Warintek, 2011).
Family Zingiberaceae plants contain flavonoids that can act as antioxidants which can protect the fat feed from oxidative damage as antioxidants commonly used in feed such as α-tocopheryl acetate or butylated hydroxytoluene (Windisch et al., 2008). Ginger extract can inhibit the growth of bacteria B. cereus with MLC (Minimum inhibitory Concentration) of 165-660 mg (Alzoreky & Nakahara, 2003). Eksrak ginger has antibacterial effects both Gram positive and Gram negative such as Clostridium, Listeria, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus, but this effect would be damaged by warming. Ginger extract had no antibacterial activity against S.typhimurium that ginger can not function as an antibacterial against bacteria S. typhimurium (Wiryawan et al., 2005).
Alzoreky, N.S. & K. Nakahara. 2003. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int. J. Food Microbiol . 80: 223 -30.
Warung Informasi dan Teknologi. 2011. Jahe (Zingiber officinale). http://www.warintek.ristek.go.id. [25 Juni 2011]
Windisch, W., Schedle, K., Plitzner C. & Kroismayr, A. 2008. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J. Anim. Sci. 86:E140-E148.
Wiryawan, K. G., Suharti, S. & Bintang, M. 2005. Kajian Antibakteri Temulawak, Jahe dan Bawang Putih terhadap Salmonella typhimurium serta Pengaruh Bawang Putih terhadap Performans dan Respon Imun Ayam Pedaging. Med. Pet. 22 : 52-62.
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