Potential Garlic (Allium sativum), Salam leaves (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) And leaves Beluntas (Pluchea indica Less.) As Natural Antibiotic
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a plant that grows terrna or in groups up to the height reached 30-60 cm and formed clumps consisting of roots, tubers, flowers, stems, and leaves (Agustian, 2007). Garlic grows well at altitudes between 700-1100 m above sea level with rainfall between 100-200 mm / month, the temperature of 15-45 ° C in the highlands and the temperature of 27-30 ° C in the lowlands.Rainfall is too high will cause the onion plants quickly decay, while in the low rainfall would interfere with the growth of the garlic plant itself (Metwally, 2009). This plant community is generally used as a spice in cooking because it has a fragrant aroma and improve the flavor of the dish.
Active substance contained in garlic is allicin, which can inhibit bacterial growth (Wiryawan et al., 2005). Active ingredient in garlic is an enzyme allinase other, allithiamin, germanium (can prevent the destruction of red blood), sativini (can accelerate the growth of cells and tissues), sinistrine, selenium (important mikromineral that act as antioxidants), scordinin (can accelerate the growth of the body, healing of cardiovascular disease and as an antioxidant), methiylallyl trisulfide (substances that prevent the occurrence pelengketan red blood cells), essential oils (as an antibacterial and antiseptic), nicotinic acid, calcium, protein, fat, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, and vitamin C (Giri, 2008). Levels of MIC (Minimum inhibitory Concentration) of garlic extract used against bacterial pathogens (S. typhimurium, S. hevana, E. coli, and Shigella flexneri) was 11.25 to 360 mg / ml (Wiryawan et al., 2005) . Durairaj et al. (2009) reported that garlic extract has a MIC against gram-positive rate of 6-11 mg / ml and 7-21 mg / ml for Gram negative bacteria.
Wiryawan et al. (2005) stated that based on test results of the antibacterial activity of garlic extract against S.typhimurium bacteria have a higher inhibitory power, evidenced by the inhibition zone diameter of 8.39 mm with a concentration of 10% (10 g/100 ml distilled water ), compared with the antibiotic tetracycline to a concentration of 100 ug / ml. Allisin substance contained in garlic has a high permeability through the membrane of the bacterial cell wall fospolipid. Alisin thiol groups will react with the enzymes that make up sulfuhidril containing cell membranes. This is thought to cause bacterial cell wall structure will be damaged and through lysis. Safithri et al. (2011) reported that the antibacterial activity of garlic filtrate of 30% is equivalent to tetracycline 10% of S. typhimurium.Water extract of garlic with a concentration of 20% have an activity equivalent to 0.01% ampicillin against S. agalatice, E. coli, and S. aureus is a bacteria that can cause mastitis in dairy cows. Garlic extract may affect the proportion of acetic acid, propionic and butyric and can mengahambat deaminsasi in the process of in vitro testing. Rations supplemented with garlic extract (containing 0.7% allicin) total VFA yield of 114.5 m M to produce VFA dick ration of 105.2 m M (Cardozo et al., 2004).
Salam leaf (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.)
Leaf which has the Latin name Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. is one of the herbs that have the ability to cure diarrhea (Very et al., 2000). Essential oils, triterpenoids, saponins, fl avonoid, and tannins are some of the compounds contained in the leaves (Davidson & Branen, 1993) which has the ability to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus cereus, B. Subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas fl uorescens (Setiawan, 2002). Leaf has the effect of inhibiting the growth of bacteria that can cause diarrhea (Very et al., 2000; Setiawaty, 2003).
Hermana et al. (2008) stated that the flour has a bay leaf dry matter of 95.02% m 4.86% ash, crude fat 4.53%, 1.28% crude protein, crude fiber 20.39%, calcium 1 , 13%, phosphorus 0.71%, 95.27 ppm saponins and tannins total 7.62%. Giving flour bay leaf to some 3% in broiler chickens infected with the bacterium E. coli tends to suppress the number of colonies of bacteria E. coli in the excreta. This means that content such as bay leaf essential oils, tannins, flavonoids and saponin acts as an antibacterial, so the higher the use of bay leaves in the ration will result in the inhibition of bacteria is higher (Hermana et al., 2008).
Beluntas leaves (Pluchea indica Less.)
Beluntas leaves (Pluchea indica Less.) Is one type of plant used Indonesia as a hedge plant and medicinal plants. Beluntas leaves contain vitamin C of 98.25 mg/100g, mg/100g 2552 beta carotene, total tannins 1.88%, 9.85% of total phenol, total flavonoids 4.47%, quercetin 1.45%, mirisetin 1, kaemperol 58% and 0.80% (Rukmiasih et al., 2010). Giving beluntas the duck with a dose of 1% effective in preventing oxidation of lipids is characterized by increasingly high percentage of fatty acids, especially C18: 0, C18: 2 and total C18: 2 and C18: 3. Setiaji & Sudarman (2005) states that beluntas leaf extract in drinking water until the level of 10% with a discontinuous mode of administration can be used as an anti-stress for broiler chickens. Flavonoids and polyphenols contained in the leaves beluntas have antioxidant activity, which together with vitamin C and carotenoids protect tissues from oxidative stress damage akibar (Rukmiasih et al., 2010). Sudarman et al. (2011) reported that the addition of leaf beluntas in broiler chicken feed can lower cholesterol levels in chicken meat to 8%.
Agustian R. , 2007. The use of garlic Allium sativum extracts for control of Vibrio harveyi inveksi on shrimp larvae Litopenaeus vannamei vaname. Thesis. Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University.
Cardozo, PW, Calsamiglia, S., A. Ferret & Kamel, C. , 2004. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3230-3236.
Davidson, PM and AL Branen. 1993.Antimicrobials in Food. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Durairaj, S., S. Srinivasan, & P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy. , 2009. In vitro antibacterial activity and stability of garlic extract at diff erent pH and temperature. Elec. J. Biol. 5: 5-10.
Giri P. , 2008. The effectiveness of garlic Allium sativum extracts against the resistance of carp Cyprinus carpio body of infected Koi herves virus (KHV). Thesis. Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University.
Hermana W., Puspitasari, IN, Wiryawan KG & Suharti, S. , 2008. Salam Leaf Flour provision (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) In Rations In Escherichia coli to Antibacterial Material Organ in Broiler Chickens. Med. Pet. 31:63-70
Metwally. , 2009. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World journal of fish and marine science 1 (1): 56-64.
Rukmiasih, Hardjosworo, PS, Piliang, WG, Hermanianto, J. & Apriyantono, A. Of 2010. Performance, Quality Chemical, and Off-Odor of Duck’s Meat (Anas plathyrynchos) Fed Beluntas (Pluchea indica L. Less) Containing ration. Med. Pet. 33: 68-75.
Safithri, M., Stars, M., & Poeloengan, M. Of 2011. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against Bacteria Animal Pathogenic some. Med. Pet. 34: 155-158.
Very, HM, EAM ascetic & EK Damayanti. Of 2000. Dictionary of Plant Diseases and Drug Indonesia (Etnofi tomedika I). Popular literature Torch, Jakarta.
Setiaji, D. & Sudarman, A. , 2005. Beluntas Leaf Extract (Pluchea indica less.) As antistress drugs in Broiler Chickens. Med. Pet. 28: 46-51.
Setiawan, CP 2002. Effect of chemical and physical treatment of the antimicrobial activity of leaves (Syzygium polyanthum (wight) Walp). Thesis. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.
Setiawaty, R. , 2003. Study the influence of leaf extract (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp). of the working power of yogurt starter. Thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.
Sudarman, A., & Solikhah Sumiati, SH 2011. Performance and Meat Content of Broiler Chickens Cholestrol Fed Pluchea indica L. Leaf meal reared under Stress Condition. Med. Pet. 34: 64-68.
Wiryawan, KG, Suharti, S. & Stars, M. , 2005. Study of Antibacterial Wild Ginger, Ginger and Garlic against Salmonella typhimurium and the Effect of Garlic on performans and Immune Response Broiler. Med. Pet. 22: 52-62.
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